Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease with the destruction of small intestinal villi, which occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. At the present moment, a gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only way to restore the functionality of gut mucosa. However, there is an open debate on the effects of long-term supplementation through a GFD, because some authors report an unbalance in microbial taxa composition. Methods: For microbiome analysis, fecal specimens were collected from 46 CD individuals in GFD for at least 2 years and 30 specimens from the healthy controls (HC). Data were analyzed using an ensemble of software packages: QIIME2, Coda-lasso, Clr-lasso, Selbal, PICRUSt2, ALDEx2, dissimilarity-overlap analysis, and dysbiosis detection tests. Results: The adherence to GFD restored the alpha biodiversity of the gut microbiota in celiac people but microbial composition at beta diversity resulted as different to HC. The microbial composition of the CD subjects was decreased in a number of taxa, namely Bifidobacterium longum and several belonging to Lachnospiraceae family, whereas Bacteroides genus was found to be more abundant. Predicted metabolic pathways among the CD bacterial communities revealed an important role in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Conclusions: CD patients in GFD had a non-dysbiotic microbial composition for the crude alpha diversity metrics. We found significant differences in beta diversity, in certain taxon, and pathways between subjects with inactive CD in GFD and controls. Collectively, our data may suggest the development of new GFD products by modulating the gut microbiota through diet, supplements of vitamins, and the addition of specific prebiotics.

Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet Restores Alpha Diversity in Celiac People but the Microbiome Composition Is Different to Healthy People

Bevilacqua A.;Panza A.;Sinigaglia M.;Corbo M. R.;Lamacchia C.
2022

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease with the destruction of small intestinal villi, which occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. At the present moment, a gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only way to restore the functionality of gut mucosa. However, there is an open debate on the effects of long-term supplementation through a GFD, because some authors report an unbalance in microbial taxa composition. Methods: For microbiome analysis, fecal specimens were collected from 46 CD individuals in GFD for at least 2 years and 30 specimens from the healthy controls (HC). Data were analyzed using an ensemble of software packages: QIIME2, Coda-lasso, Clr-lasso, Selbal, PICRUSt2, ALDEx2, dissimilarity-overlap analysis, and dysbiosis detection tests. Results: The adherence to GFD restored the alpha biodiversity of the gut microbiota in celiac people but microbial composition at beta diversity resulted as different to HC. The microbial composition of the CD subjects was decreased in a number of taxa, namely Bifidobacterium longum and several belonging to Lachnospiraceae family, whereas Bacteroides genus was found to be more abundant. Predicted metabolic pathways among the CD bacterial communities revealed an important role in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Conclusions: CD patients in GFD had a non-dysbiotic microbial composition for the crude alpha diversity metrics. We found significant differences in beta diversity, in certain taxon, and pathways between subjects with inactive CD in GFD and controls. Collectively, our data may suggest the development of new GFD products by modulating the gut microbiota through diet, supplements of vitamins, and the addition of specific prebiotics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/421201
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