Winemaking depends on several elaborate biochemical processes that see as protagonist either yeasts or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of oenological interest. In particular, LAB have a fundamental role in determining the quality chemical and aromatic properties of wine. They are essential not only for malic acid conversion, but also for producing several desired by-products due to their important enzymatic activities that can release volatile aromatic compounds during malolactic fermentation (e.g., esters, carbonyl compounds, thiols, monoterpenes). In addition, LAB in oenology can act as bioprotectors and reduce the content of undesired compounds. On the other hand, LAB can affect wine consumers' health, as they can produce harmful compounds such as biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate under certain conditions during fermentation. Several of these positive and negative properties are species- and strain-dependent characteristics. This review focuses on these aspects, summarising the current state of knowledge on LAB's oenological diversity, and highlighting their influence on the final product's quality and safety. All our reported information is of high interest in searching new candidate strains to design starter cultures, microbial resources for traditional/typical products, and green solutions in winemaking. Due to the continuous interest in LAB as oenological bioresources, we also underline the importance of inoculation timing. The considerable variability among LAB species/strains associated with spontaneous consortia and the continuous advances in the characterisation of new species/strains of interest for applications in the wine sector suggest that the exploitation of biodiversity belonging to this heterogeneous group of bacteria is still rising.

Biodiversity of Oenological Lactic Acid Bacteria: Species- and Strain-Dependent Plus/Minus Effects on Wine Quality and Safety

Nicola De Simone;Mariagiovanna Fragasso;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Winemaking depends on several elaborate biochemical processes that see as protagonist either yeasts or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of oenological interest. In particular, LAB have a fundamental role in determining the quality chemical and aromatic properties of wine. They are essential not only for malic acid conversion, but also for producing several desired by-products due to their important enzymatic activities that can release volatile aromatic compounds during malolactic fermentation (e.g., esters, carbonyl compounds, thiols, monoterpenes). In addition, LAB in oenology can act as bioprotectors and reduce the content of undesired compounds. On the other hand, LAB can affect wine consumers' health, as they can produce harmful compounds such as biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate under certain conditions during fermentation. Several of these positive and negative properties are species- and strain-dependent characteristics. This review focuses on these aspects, summarising the current state of knowledge on LAB's oenological diversity, and highlighting their influence on the final product's quality and safety. All our reported information is of high interest in searching new candidate strains to design starter cultures, microbial resources for traditional/typical products, and green solutions in winemaking. Due to the continuous interest in LAB as oenological bioresources, we also underline the importance of inoculation timing. The considerable variability among LAB species/strains associated with spontaneous consortia and the continuous advances in the characterisation of new species/strains of interest for applications in the wine sector suggest that the exploitation of biodiversity belonging to this heterogeneous group of bacteria is still rising.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/444894
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