Background: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the more common movement disorders. Current diagnosis is solely based on clinical findings. ET appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Several loci on specific chromosomes have been studied by linkage analysis, but the causes of essential tremor are still unknown in many patients. Genetic studies described the association of several genes with familial ET. However, they were found only in distinct families, suggesting that some can be private pathogenic variants. Aim of the study: to characterize the phenotype of an Italian family with ET and identify the genetic variant associated. Methods: Clinical and genetic examinations were performed. Genetic testing was done with whole-exome sequencing (WES) using the Illumina platform. Bidirectional capillary Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the presence of variant in all affected members of the family. In silico prediction of pathogenicity was used to study the effect of gene variants on protein structure. Results: The proband was a 15-year-old boy. The patient was the first of two children of a non-consanguineous couple. Family history was remarkable for tremor in the mother line. His mother suffered from bilateral upper extremity kinetic tremors (since she was 20 years old), anxiety, and depression. Other relatives referred bilateral upper extremity tremors. In the index case, WES analysis performed supposing a dominant mode of inheritance, identified a novel heterozygous missense variant in potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2 (KCNN2) (NM_021614.3: c.1145G>A, p.Gly382Asp). In the pedigree investigation, all carriers of the gene variant had ET and showed variable expressivity, the elder symptomatic relative showing cognitive impairment and hallucinations in the last decade, in addition to tremor since a young age. The amino acid residue #382 is located in a transmembrane region and in silico analysis suggested a causative role for the variant. Modelling of the mutant protein structure showed that the variant causes a clash in the protein structure. Therefore, the variant could cause a conformational change that alters the ability of the protein in the modulation of ion channels Conclusions: The KCNN2 gene variant identified could be associated with ET. The variant could modify a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium.

A Novel KCNN2 Variant in a Family with Essential Tremor Plus: Clinical Characteristics and In Silico Analysis

d'Apolito, Maria
;
Ceccarini, Caterina;Savino, Rosa;Adipietro, Iolanda;di Bari, Ighli;Santacroce, Rosa;D'Andrea, Giovanna;Croce, Anna-Irma;Cesarano, Carla;Margaglione, Maurizio
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the more common movement disorders. Current diagnosis is solely based on clinical findings. ET appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Several loci on specific chromosomes have been studied by linkage analysis, but the causes of essential tremor are still unknown in many patients. Genetic studies described the association of several genes with familial ET. However, they were found only in distinct families, suggesting that some can be private pathogenic variants. Aim of the study: to characterize the phenotype of an Italian family with ET and identify the genetic variant associated. Methods: Clinical and genetic examinations were performed. Genetic testing was done with whole-exome sequencing (WES) using the Illumina platform. Bidirectional capillary Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the presence of variant in all affected members of the family. In silico prediction of pathogenicity was used to study the effect of gene variants on protein structure. Results: The proband was a 15-year-old boy. The patient was the first of two children of a non-consanguineous couple. Family history was remarkable for tremor in the mother line. His mother suffered from bilateral upper extremity kinetic tremors (since she was 20 years old), anxiety, and depression. Other relatives referred bilateral upper extremity tremors. In the index case, WES analysis performed supposing a dominant mode of inheritance, identified a novel heterozygous missense variant in potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2 (KCNN2) (NM_021614.3: c.1145G>A, p.Gly382Asp). In the pedigree investigation, all carriers of the gene variant had ET and showed variable expressivity, the elder symptomatic relative showing cognitive impairment and hallucinations in the last decade, in addition to tremor since a young age. The amino acid residue #382 is located in a transmembrane region and in silico analysis suggested a causative role for the variant. Modelling of the mutant protein structure showed that the variant causes a clash in the protein structure. Therefore, the variant could cause a conformational change that alters the ability of the protein in the modulation of ion channels Conclusions: The KCNN2 gene variant identified could be associated with ET. The variant could modify a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/439793
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