The management of the alcoholic fermentation (AF) in wine is crucial to shaping product quality. Numerous variables (e.g., grape varieties, yeast species/strains, technological parameters) can affect the performances of this fermentative bioprocess. The fact that these variables are often interdependent, with a high degree of interaction, leads to a huge ‘oenological space’ associated with AF that scientists and professionals have explored to obtain the desired quality standards in wine and to promote innovation. This challenge explains the high interest in approaches tested to monitor this bioprocess including those using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as target molecules. Among direct injection mass spectrometry approaches, no study has proposed an untargeted online investigation of the diversity of volatiles associated with the wine headspace. This communication proposed the first application of proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled to a time-of-flight mass analyzer (PTR-ToF-MS) to follow the progress of AF and evaluate the impact of the different variables of wine quality. As a case study, the assessment of VOC variability associated with different combinations of Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces was selected. The different combinations of microbial resources in wine are among the main factors susceptible to influencing the content of VOCs associated with the wine headspaces. In particular, this investigation explored the effect of multiple combinations of two Saccharomyces strains and two non-Saccharomyces strains (belonging to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii) on the content of VOCs in wine, inoculated both in commercial grape juice and fresh grape must. The results demonstrated the possible exploitation of non-invasive PTR-ToF-MS monitoring to explore, using VOCs as biomarkers, (i) the huge number of variables influencing AF in wine, and (ii) applications of single/mixed starter cultures in wine. Reported preliminary findings underlined the presence of different behaviors on grape juice and on must, respectively, and confirmed differences among the single yeast strains ‘volatomes’. It was one of the first studies to include the simultaneous inoculation on two non-Saccharomyces species together with a S. cerevisiae strain in terms of VOC contribution. Among the other outcomes, evidence suggests that the addition of M. pulcherrima to the coupled S. cerevisiae/T. delbrueckii can modify the global release of volatiles as a function of the characteristics of the fermented matrix.

PTR-ToF-MS for the Online Monitoring of Alcoholic Fermentation in Wine: Assessment of VOCs Variability Associated with Different Combinations of Saccharomyces/Non-Saccharomyces as a Case-Study

P. Russo;G. Spano;M. Fragasso;
2020-01-01

Abstract

The management of the alcoholic fermentation (AF) in wine is crucial to shaping product quality. Numerous variables (e.g., grape varieties, yeast species/strains, technological parameters) can affect the performances of this fermentative bioprocess. The fact that these variables are often interdependent, with a high degree of interaction, leads to a huge ‘oenological space’ associated with AF that scientists and professionals have explored to obtain the desired quality standards in wine and to promote innovation. This challenge explains the high interest in approaches tested to monitor this bioprocess including those using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as target molecules. Among direct injection mass spectrometry approaches, no study has proposed an untargeted online investigation of the diversity of volatiles associated with the wine headspace. This communication proposed the first application of proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled to a time-of-flight mass analyzer (PTR-ToF-MS) to follow the progress of AF and evaluate the impact of the different variables of wine quality. As a case study, the assessment of VOC variability associated with different combinations of Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces was selected. The different combinations of microbial resources in wine are among the main factors susceptible to influencing the content of VOCs associated with the wine headspaces. In particular, this investigation explored the effect of multiple combinations of two Saccharomyces strains and two non-Saccharomyces strains (belonging to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii) on the content of VOCs in wine, inoculated both in commercial grape juice and fresh grape must. The results demonstrated the possible exploitation of non-invasive PTR-ToF-MS monitoring to explore, using VOCs as biomarkers, (i) the huge number of variables influencing AF in wine, and (ii) applications of single/mixed starter cultures in wine. Reported preliminary findings underlined the presence of different behaviors on grape juice and on must, respectively, and confirmed differences among the single yeast strains ‘volatomes’. It was one of the first studies to include the simultaneous inoculation on two non-Saccharomyces species together with a S. cerevisiae strain in terms of VOC contribution. Among the other outcomes, evidence suggests that the addition of M. pulcherrima to the coupled S. cerevisiae/T. delbrueckii can modify the global release of volatiles as a function of the characteristics of the fermented matrix.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/395871
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