Drug-naïve psychotic patients show metabolic and hepatic dysfunctions. The rat social isolation model of psychosis allows to investigate mechanisms leading to these disturbances to which oxidative stress crucially contributes. Here, we investigated isolation-induced central and peripheral dysfunctions in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, along with redox dysregulation. Social isolation did not affect basal glycemic levels and the response to glucose and insulin loads in the glucose and insulin tolerance tests. However, HOMA-Index value were increased in isolated (ISO) rats. A hypothalamic reduction of AKT phosphorylation and a trend toward an increase in AMPK phosphorylation were observed following social isolation, accompanied by reduced GLUT-4 levels. Social isolation also induced a reduction of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, of AKT and GLUT-2, and a decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic CPT1 and PPAR-α levels was detected. ISO rats also showed significant elevations in hepatic ROS amount, lipid peroxidation and NOX4 expression, whereas no differences were detected in NOX2 and NOX1 levels. Expression of SOD2 in the mitochondrial fraction and SOD1 in the cytosolic fraction was not altered following social isolation, whereas SOD activity was increased. Furthermore, a decrease of hepatic CAT and GSH amount was observed in ISO rats compared to GRP animals. Our data suggest that the increased oxidant status and antioxidant capacity modifications may trigger hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, by altering signal hormone pathway and sustaining subsequent alteration of glucose homeostasis and metabolic impairment observed in the social isolation model of psychosis.

Social isolation triggers oxidative status and impairs systemic and hepatic insulin sensitivity in normoglycemic rats

Bove M.;Schiavone S.
;
Tucci P.;Sikora V.;Corso G.;Morgese M. G.;Trabace L.
2022

Abstract

Drug-naïve psychotic patients show metabolic and hepatic dysfunctions. The rat social isolation model of psychosis allows to investigate mechanisms leading to these disturbances to which oxidative stress crucially contributes. Here, we investigated isolation-induced central and peripheral dysfunctions in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, along with redox dysregulation. Social isolation did not affect basal glycemic levels and the response to glucose and insulin loads in the glucose and insulin tolerance tests. However, HOMA-Index value were increased in isolated (ISO) rats. A hypothalamic reduction of AKT phosphorylation and a trend toward an increase in AMPK phosphorylation were observed following social isolation, accompanied by reduced GLUT-4 levels. Social isolation also induced a reduction of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, of AKT and GLUT-2, and a decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic CPT1 and PPAR-α levels was detected. ISO rats also showed significant elevations in hepatic ROS amount, lipid peroxidation and NOX4 expression, whereas no differences were detected in NOX2 and NOX1 levels. Expression of SOD2 in the mitochondrial fraction and SOD1 in the cytosolic fraction was not altered following social isolation, whereas SOD activity was increased. Furthermore, a decrease of hepatic CAT and GSH amount was observed in ISO rats compared to GRP animals. Our data suggest that the increased oxidant status and antioxidant capacity modifications may trigger hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, by altering signal hormone pathway and sustaining subsequent alteration of glucose homeostasis and metabolic impairment observed in the social isolation model of psychosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/415176
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