The viability of co‐composting of olive mill pomace added to sewage sludge with other organic residues was evaluated and the agronomic use of the final composts was investigated. Two composting piles at different carbon‐nitrogen ratios were performed, in which olive mill pomace (OMP), sewage sludge from vegetable processing (SS), fresh residues from artichoke processing residues (AR), and wheat straw (WS) were used. The two composting piles were placed inside a specially built greenhouse and a turning machine pulled by a tractor was used for turning and shredding the organic matrix (every 6 days) during the process. The humidity and temperature of organic matrices have been monitored and controlled during the entire composting process, which lasted 90 days. The process was also monitored to evaluate the microbiological safety of the final compost. The humidity of both piles was always kept just above 50% until the end of the thermophilic phase and the maximum temperature was about 50 °C during the thermophilic phase. The carbon‐nitrogen ratio decreased from 21.4 and 28.2, respectively (initial value at day 1 in Pile A and B), to values ranging from 12.9 to 15.1, both composts that originated from the two different piles were microbiologically safe. During a two‐year period, the effects of different types of compost on the main qualitative parameters of processing tomato and durum wheat was evaluated. Five fertilization treatments were evaluated for tomato and durum wheat crops: unfertilized control (TR1); compost A (TR2); compost B (TR3); ½ mineral and ½ compost A (TR4); and mineral fertilizer commonly used for the two crops (TR5). Concerning the processing tomato yield, TR5 and TR4 showed the best results (2.73 and 2.51 kg, respectively). The same trend was observed considering the marketable yield per plant. The only difference was related to the treatments that included the compost (2.32, 1.77, and 1.73 kg/plant for TR4, TR3, and TR2, respectively). As regards the qualitative parameters of tomato, the highest average weight of the fruits was found in the TR5, TR4, and TR3 treatments (respectively, 73.67 g, 70.34 g, and 68.10 g). For durum wheat, only the protein component was differentiated between treatments. Furthermore, wheat grain yield parameters generally increased by combined application of mineral fertilizer and compost.

Composting of Olive Mill Pomace, Agro‐Industrial Sewage Sludge and Other Residues: Process Monitoring and Agronomic Use of the Resulting Composts

Roberto Romaniello;Luciano Beneduce;Anna Gagliardi;Marcella Giuliani;Giuseppe Gatta
2021

Abstract

The viability of co‐composting of olive mill pomace added to sewage sludge with other organic residues was evaluated and the agronomic use of the final composts was investigated. Two composting piles at different carbon‐nitrogen ratios were performed, in which olive mill pomace (OMP), sewage sludge from vegetable processing (SS), fresh residues from artichoke processing residues (AR), and wheat straw (WS) were used. The two composting piles were placed inside a specially built greenhouse and a turning machine pulled by a tractor was used for turning and shredding the organic matrix (every 6 days) during the process. The humidity and temperature of organic matrices have been monitored and controlled during the entire composting process, which lasted 90 days. The process was also monitored to evaluate the microbiological safety of the final compost. The humidity of both piles was always kept just above 50% until the end of the thermophilic phase and the maximum temperature was about 50 °C during the thermophilic phase. The carbon‐nitrogen ratio decreased from 21.4 and 28.2, respectively (initial value at day 1 in Pile A and B), to values ranging from 12.9 to 15.1, both composts that originated from the two different piles were microbiologically safe. During a two‐year period, the effects of different types of compost on the main qualitative parameters of processing tomato and durum wheat was evaluated. Five fertilization treatments were evaluated for tomato and durum wheat crops: unfertilized control (TR1); compost A (TR2); compost B (TR3); ½ mineral and ½ compost A (TR4); and mineral fertilizer commonly used for the two crops (TR5). Concerning the processing tomato yield, TR5 and TR4 showed the best results (2.73 and 2.51 kg, respectively). The same trend was observed considering the marketable yield per plant. The only difference was related to the treatments that included the compost (2.32, 1.77, and 1.73 kg/plant for TR4, TR3, and TR2, respectively). As regards the qualitative parameters of tomato, the highest average weight of the fruits was found in the TR5, TR4, and TR3 treatments (respectively, 73.67 g, 70.34 g, and 68.10 g). For durum wheat, only the protein component was differentiated between treatments. Furthermore, wheat grain yield parameters generally increased by combined application of mineral fertilizer and compost.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/403437
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact