Administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine during brain maturation represents a tool to mimic an early insult to the central nervous system (CNS). The cerebellum is a key player in psychosis pathogenesis, to which oxidative stress also contributes. Here, we investigated the impact of early celastrol administration on behavioral dysfunctions in adult mice that had received ketamine (30 mg/kg i.p.) at postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 9, and 11. Cerebellar levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 and NOX2, as well as of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), were also assessed. Furthermore, celastrol effects on ketamine-induced alterations of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in this brain region were evaluated. Early celastrol administration prevented ketamine-induced discrimination index decrease at adulthood. The same was found for locomotor activity elevations and increased close following and allogrooming, whereas no beneficial effects on sniffing impairment were detected. Ketamine increased 8-OHdG in the cerebellum of adult mice, which was also prevented by early celastrol injection. Cerebellar NOX1 levels were enhanced at adulthood following postnatal ketamine exposure. Celastrol per se induced NOX1 decrease in the cerebellum. This effect was more significant in animals that were early administered with ketamine. NOX2 levels did not change. Ketamine administration did not affect PV amount in the cerebellum. TNF-α levels were enhanced in ketamine-treated animals; however, this was not prevented by early celastrol administration. While no changes were observed for IL-6 and IL-1β levels, ketamine determined a reduction of cerebellar IL-10 expression, which was prevented by early celastrol treatment. Our results suggest that NOX inhibition during brain maturation prevents the development of psychotic-like behavioral dysfunctions, as well as the increased cerebellar oxidative stress and the reduction of IL-10 in the same brain region following ketamine exposure in postnatal life. This opens novel neuroprotective opportunities against early detrimental insults occurring during brain development.

Early celastrol administration prevents ketamine-induced psychotic-like behavioral dysfunctions, oxidative stress and IL-10 reduction in the cerebellum of adult mice

Schiavone S.;Tucci P.;Trabace L.
;
Morgese M. G.
2019

Abstract

Administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine during brain maturation represents a tool to mimic an early insult to the central nervous system (CNS). The cerebellum is a key player in psychosis pathogenesis, to which oxidative stress also contributes. Here, we investigated the impact of early celastrol administration on behavioral dysfunctions in adult mice that had received ketamine (30 mg/kg i.p.) at postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 9, and 11. Cerebellar levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 and NOX2, as well as of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), were also assessed. Furthermore, celastrol effects on ketamine-induced alterations of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in this brain region were evaluated. Early celastrol administration prevented ketamine-induced discrimination index decrease at adulthood. The same was found for locomotor activity elevations and increased close following and allogrooming, whereas no beneficial effects on sniffing impairment were detected. Ketamine increased 8-OHdG in the cerebellum of adult mice, which was also prevented by early celastrol injection. Cerebellar NOX1 levels were enhanced at adulthood following postnatal ketamine exposure. Celastrol per se induced NOX1 decrease in the cerebellum. This effect was more significant in animals that were early administered with ketamine. NOX2 levels did not change. Ketamine administration did not affect PV amount in the cerebellum. TNF-α levels were enhanced in ketamine-treated animals; however, this was not prevented by early celastrol administration. While no changes were observed for IL-6 and IL-1β levels, ketamine determined a reduction of cerebellar IL-10 expression, which was prevented by early celastrol treatment. Our results suggest that NOX inhibition during brain maturation prevents the development of psychotic-like behavioral dysfunctions, as well as the increased cerebellar oxidative stress and the reduction of IL-10 in the same brain region following ketamine exposure in postnatal life. This opens novel neuroprotective opportunities against early detrimental insults occurring during brain development.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/382352
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