Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) results from a mutation affecting both the structure and function of a cell surface receptor that removes low density lipoproteins (LDL) from plasma. The disorder is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, a lifelong elevation in the concentration of LDL-bound cholesterol in blood and by cholesterol deposits that form xanthomas and early coronary artery disease. HFH patients, as a result of the increased levels and prolonged residence time of LDL in plasma, have a strong tendency toward accumulation of LDL-cholesterol in the arterial wall causing premature atherosclerosis. Selective LDL-apheresis (LA) on dextran/sulphate cellulose columns is the best therapy reducing mortality of these patients. We previously showed that prolonged lifelong enhanced LDL oxidation in HFH. LDL undergo oxidation before being taken up by macrophages then transformed into foam cells. At the present time, the relevance of the in vitro macrophages studies to the accumulation of cholesterol esters in scavenger cells of HFH patients is not yet established. The aim of this study was to investigate LDL oxidation, induced by xanthine (2 mM)+xanthine oxidase (100 mU), and cholesterol esterification in macrophages, in 8 HFH patients before and after LA. LDL peroxidation by conjugated-diene absorbance showed an increased resistance against oxidation after LA: lag time 129 +/- 25 vs 112 +/- 27 min, p < 0.05; diene production 9.1 +/- 2.1 vs 13.9 +/- 2.5 nM/min/mg LDL, p < 0.01. Peroxidation was also evaluated from lipid peroxides (158 +/- 34 vs 57 +/- 18 nM/mg protein after LA, p < 0.05) and malonyldialdehyde (38 +/- 12 vs 27 +/- 8 nM/mg protein after LA, p < 0.05) content. When oxidized LDL was run on polyacrylamide gel extensive apo-B100 fragmentation was observed in LDL before LA, vs a less fragmentation after LA. A similar reduction was obtained in LDL agarose mobility after LA (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2, p < 0.05). Cholesterol esterification in mouse peritoneal macrophages was also decreased after LA (8.5 +/- 1.8 vs 14.6 +/- 2.7 nM/mg cell protein/12 hours, p < 0.05). Vitamin E content of LDL (mg/g protein) was increased after LA (4.44 +/- 1.0 vs 3.9 +/- 1.2, p < 0.05). Thus, selective LA, not only decreases the pool of LDL, but it also induces changes that render LDL less susceptible to oxidation and decreased high cholesterol esterification in macrophages. The prevention of these mechanisms by LA contributes actively to retard atherogenesis in HFH patients.

LDL oxidation in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: effects of selective LDL-apheresis treatment

CORSO, GAETANO;
1996

Abstract

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) results from a mutation affecting both the structure and function of a cell surface receptor that removes low density lipoproteins (LDL) from plasma. The disorder is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, a lifelong elevation in the concentration of LDL-bound cholesterol in blood and by cholesterol deposits that form xanthomas and early coronary artery disease. HFH patients, as a result of the increased levels and prolonged residence time of LDL in plasma, have a strong tendency toward accumulation of LDL-cholesterol in the arterial wall causing premature atherosclerosis. Selective LDL-apheresis (LA) on dextran/sulphate cellulose columns is the best therapy reducing mortality of these patients. We previously showed that prolonged lifelong enhanced LDL oxidation in HFH. LDL undergo oxidation before being taken up by macrophages then transformed into foam cells. At the present time, the relevance of the in vitro macrophages studies to the accumulation of cholesterol esters in scavenger cells of HFH patients is not yet established. The aim of this study was to investigate LDL oxidation, induced by xanthine (2 mM)+xanthine oxidase (100 mU), and cholesterol esterification in macrophages, in 8 HFH patients before and after LA. LDL peroxidation by conjugated-diene absorbance showed an increased resistance against oxidation after LA: lag time 129 +/- 25 vs 112 +/- 27 min, p < 0.05; diene production 9.1 +/- 2.1 vs 13.9 +/- 2.5 nM/min/mg LDL, p < 0.01. Peroxidation was also evaluated from lipid peroxides (158 +/- 34 vs 57 +/- 18 nM/mg protein after LA, p < 0.05) and malonyldialdehyde (38 +/- 12 vs 27 +/- 8 nM/mg protein after LA, p < 0.05) content. When oxidized LDL was run on polyacrylamide gel extensive apo-B100 fragmentation was observed in LDL before LA, vs a less fragmentation after LA. A similar reduction was obtained in LDL agarose mobility after LA (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2, p < 0.05). Cholesterol esterification in mouse peritoneal macrophages was also decreased after LA (8.5 +/- 1.8 vs 14.6 +/- 2.7 nM/mg cell protein/12 hours, p < 0.05). Vitamin E content of LDL (mg/g protein) was increased after LA (4.44 +/- 1.0 vs 3.9 +/- 1.2, p < 0.05). Thus, selective LA, not only decreases the pool of LDL, but it also induces changes that render LDL less susceptible to oxidation and decreased high cholesterol esterification in macrophages. The prevention of these mechanisms by LA contributes actively to retard atherogenesis in HFH patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11369/8650
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