Objective: Extubation failure is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. The role of noninvasive positivepressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety of implementing noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in this setting and its impact on lung function and operative outcomes. Methods: In a 6-month pilot prospective survey, the study population comprised 43 patients (32were male with a mean age of 65.73 9 years; 3 heart transplantations, 18 coronary artery bypass grafts, 5 aortic dissections, and 17 valvular procedures; 34 active smokers, 25 with medically treated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 21 emergency/urgency procedures) who required noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure after initial weaning from a respirator. The cause of acute respiratory failure (classified as post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung injury in 48.8% [21 patients], cardiogenic edema in 30.2% [13 patients], and pneumonia in 21%[9 patients]), length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support, respiratory ratios (arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen assessed immediately before noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and every 6 hours after institution of pressure ventilation), and need for reintubation along with a set of predefined safety parameters were recorded. Results: The mean length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support was 33.8 24.04 hours. Plotting respiratory ratios with length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation supports a significant improvement was already evident within the first 6-hour frame (133.6 39.5 vs 205 65.7; P<.001) for all causes. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation prevented intubation in 74.4% of the patients, with satisfactory recovery for postcardiopulmonary bypass lung injury and cardiogenic dysfunction (90.5% and 69.2%, respectively) and poor results (55% reintubated) in those treated for pneumonia. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation safety approached 97.7%. Conclusion: In appropriate candidates, noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation exerts favorable effects on lung function, preventing reintubation. The cost-effectiveness of its systematic use in this setting should be assessed.

Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for extubation failure after cardiac surgery: Pilot safety evaluation.

DE SANTO, LUCA SALVATORE;
2009

Abstract

Objective: Extubation failure is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. The role of noninvasive positivepressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety of implementing noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in this setting and its impact on lung function and operative outcomes. Methods: In a 6-month pilot prospective survey, the study population comprised 43 patients (32were male with a mean age of 65.73 9 years; 3 heart transplantations, 18 coronary artery bypass grafts, 5 aortic dissections, and 17 valvular procedures; 34 active smokers, 25 with medically treated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 21 emergency/urgency procedures) who required noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure after initial weaning from a respirator. The cause of acute respiratory failure (classified as post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung injury in 48.8% [21 patients], cardiogenic edema in 30.2% [13 patients], and pneumonia in 21%[9 patients]), length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support, respiratory ratios (arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen assessed immediately before noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and every 6 hours after institution of pressure ventilation), and need for reintubation along with a set of predefined safety parameters were recorded. Results: The mean length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support was 33.8 24.04 hours. Plotting respiratory ratios with length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation supports a significant improvement was already evident within the first 6-hour frame (133.6 39.5 vs 205 65.7; P<.001) for all causes. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation prevented intubation in 74.4% of the patients, with satisfactory recovery for postcardiopulmonary bypass lung injury and cardiogenic dysfunction (90.5% and 69.2%, respectively) and poor results (55% reintubated) in those treated for pneumonia. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation safety approached 97.7%. Conclusion: In appropriate candidates, noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation exerts favorable effects on lung function, preventing reintubation. The cost-effectiveness of its systematic use in this setting should be assessed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/8328
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