Background: Insomnia, defined as a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, is a relevant medical issue. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. Two phases characterize human sleep structure: sleep with Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) and sleep with Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Physiological sleep includes NREM and REM phases in a continuous cycle known as “Sleep Architecture.” Objective: This systematic review summarizes the studies that have investigated effects of BZDs on Sleep Architecture. Methods: The articles selection included human clinical trials (in English, Portuguese, or Spanish) only, specifically focused on BZDs effects on sleep architecture. PubMed, BVS, and Google Scho-lar databases were searched. Results: Findings on BZDs effects on sleep architecture confirm an increase in stage 2 of NREM sleep and a decrease in time of stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep with a reduction in time of REM sleep during the nocturnal sleep. Conclusion: Variations in NREM and REM sleep may lead to deficits in concentration and working memory and weight gain. The increase in stage 2 of NREM sleep may lead to a subjective im-provement of sleep quality with no awakenings. BZDz should be prescribed with zeal and profes-sional judgment. These patients should be closely monitored for possible long-term side effects.

Benzodiazepines and Sleep Architecture: A Systematic Review

Ventriglio A.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Insomnia, defined as a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, is a relevant medical issue. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. Two phases characterize human sleep structure: sleep with Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) and sleep with Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Physiological sleep includes NREM and REM phases in a continuous cycle known as “Sleep Architecture.” Objective: This systematic review summarizes the studies that have investigated effects of BZDs on Sleep Architecture. Methods: The articles selection included human clinical trials (in English, Portuguese, or Spanish) only, specifically focused on BZDs effects on sleep architecture. PubMed, BVS, and Google Scho-lar databases were searched. Results: Findings on BZDs effects on sleep architecture confirm an increase in stage 2 of NREM sleep and a decrease in time of stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep with a reduction in time of REM sleep during the nocturnal sleep. Conclusion: Variations in NREM and REM sleep may lead to deficits in concentration and working memory and weight gain. The increase in stage 2 of NREM sleep may lead to a subjective im-provement of sleep quality with no awakenings. BZDz should be prescribed with zeal and profes-sional judgment. These patients should be closely monitored for possible long-term side effects.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/446781
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