Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), a rare aggressive malignancy primarily involving the retina and/or the vitreous, is a major diagnostic challenge for clinicians (who commonly misdiagnose it as chronic uveitis) as well as for pathologists (for biological and technical reasons). Delays in diagnosis and treatment are responsible for visual impairments and life-threatening consequences, usually related to central nervous system involvement. The identification of lymphoma cells in vitreous fluid, obtained by vitrectomy, is required for diagnosis. Of note, the scarcity of neoplastic cells in small volumes of vitreous sample, and the fragility of lymphoma cells with degenerative changes caused by previous steroid use for presumed uveitis makes diagnosis based on cytology plus immunophenotyping difficult. Interleukin levels, immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, and MYD88 mutation are applied in combination with cytology to support diagnosis. We aim to describe the current laboratory technologies for PVRL diagnosis, focusing on the main issues that these methods have. In addition, new emerging diagnostic strategies, such as next-generation sequencing analysis, are discussed. The genetic profile of PVRL remains largely unexplored. Better knowledge of genetic alterations is critical for precision medicine interventions with target-based treatments of this lymphoma for which no standardised treatment protocol currently exists.

Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma: Current Diagnostic Laboratory Tests and New Emerging Molecular Tools

Sanguedolce, Francesca;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), a rare aggressive malignancy primarily involving the retina and/or the vitreous, is a major diagnostic challenge for clinicians (who commonly misdiagnose it as chronic uveitis) as well as for pathologists (for biological and technical reasons). Delays in diagnosis and treatment are responsible for visual impairments and life-threatening consequences, usually related to central nervous system involvement. The identification of lymphoma cells in vitreous fluid, obtained by vitrectomy, is required for diagnosis. Of note, the scarcity of neoplastic cells in small volumes of vitreous sample, and the fragility of lymphoma cells with degenerative changes caused by previous steroid use for presumed uveitis makes diagnosis based on cytology plus immunophenotyping difficult. Interleukin levels, immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, and MYD88 mutation are applied in combination with cytology to support diagnosis. We aim to describe the current laboratory technologies for PVRL diagnosis, focusing on the main issues that these methods have. In addition, new emerging diagnostic strategies, such as next-generation sequencing analysis, are discussed. The genetic profile of PVRL remains largely unexplored. Better knowledge of genetic alterations is critical for precision medicine interventions with target-based treatments of this lymphoma for which no standardised treatment protocol currently exists.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/446180
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