Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common type of cancer that affects the urinary bladder. The early detection and management of BCa is critical for successful treatment and patient outcomes. In recent years, researchers have been exploring the use of biomarkers as a non-invasive and effective tool for the detection and monitoring of BCa. One such biomarker is programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is expressed on the surface of cancer cells and plays a crucial role in the evasion of the immune system. Studies have shown that the PD-L1 expression is higher in BCa tumors than in healthy bladder tissue. Additionally, PD-L1 expression might even be detected in urine samples in BCa patients, in addition to the examination of a histological sample. The technique is being standardized and optimized. We reported how BCa patients had higher urinary PD-L1 levels than controls by considering BCa tumors expressing PD-L1 in the tissue specimen. The expression of PD-L1 in urinary BCa cells might represent both a diagnostic and a prognostic tool, with the perspective that the PD-L1 expression of exfoliate urinary cells might reveal and anticipate eventual BCa recurrence or progression. Further prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to assess the expression of PD-L1 as a biomarker for the monitoring of BCa patients. The use of PD-L1 as a biomarker for the detection and monitoring of BCa has the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes by allowing for earlier detection and more effective management of the disease.

The Role of Checkpoint Inhibitor Expression Directly on Exfoliated Cells from Bladder Cancer: A Narrative Review

Busetto GM;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common type of cancer that affects the urinary bladder. The early detection and management of BCa is critical for successful treatment and patient outcomes. In recent years, researchers have been exploring the use of biomarkers as a non-invasive and effective tool for the detection and monitoring of BCa. One such biomarker is programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is expressed on the surface of cancer cells and plays a crucial role in the evasion of the immune system. Studies have shown that the PD-L1 expression is higher in BCa tumors than in healthy bladder tissue. Additionally, PD-L1 expression might even be detected in urine samples in BCa patients, in addition to the examination of a histological sample. The technique is being standardized and optimized. We reported how BCa patients had higher urinary PD-L1 levels than controls by considering BCa tumors expressing PD-L1 in the tissue specimen. The expression of PD-L1 in urinary BCa cells might represent both a diagnostic and a prognostic tool, with the perspective that the PD-L1 expression of exfoliate urinary cells might reveal and anticipate eventual BCa recurrence or progression. Further prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to assess the expression of PD-L1 as a biomarker for the monitoring of BCa patients. The use of PD-L1 as a biomarker for the detection and monitoring of BCa has the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes by allowing for earlier detection and more effective management of the disease.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/442790
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