Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac muscle disorder characterized by generally asymmetric abnormal hypertrophy of the left ventricle without abnormal loading conditions (such as hypertension or valvular heart disease) accounting for the left ventricular wall thickness or mass. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in HCM patients is about 1% yearly in adults, but it is far higher in adolescence. HCM is the most frequent cause of death in athletes in the Unites States of America. HCM is an autosomal-dominant genetic cardiomyopathy, and mutations in the genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are identified in 30–60% of cases. The presence of this genetic mutation carries more than 2-fold increased risk for all outcomes, including ventricular arrhythmias. Genetic and myocardial substrate, including fibrosis and intraventricular dispersion of conduction, ventricular hypertrophy and microvascular ischemia, increased myofilament calcium sensitivity and abnormal calcium handling, all play a role as arrhythmogenic determinants. Cardiac imaging studies provide important information for risk stratification. Transthoracic echocardiography can be helpful to evaluate left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV outflow-tract gradient and left atrial size. Additionally, cardiac magnetic resonance can evaluate the prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement, which when higher than 15% of LV mass is a prognostic maker of SCD. Age, family history of SCD, syncope and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia at Holter ECG have also been validated as independent prognostic markers of SCD. Arrhythmic risk stratification in HCM requires careful evaluation of several clinical aspects. Symptoms combined with electrocardiogram, cardiac imaging tools and genetic counselling are the modern cornerstone for proper risk stratification.

Arrhythmic Risk Stratification among Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Mango F.;Mallardi A.;Casavecchia G.;Correale M.;Brunetti N. D.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac muscle disorder characterized by generally asymmetric abnormal hypertrophy of the left ventricle without abnormal loading conditions (such as hypertension or valvular heart disease) accounting for the left ventricular wall thickness or mass. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in HCM patients is about 1% yearly in adults, but it is far higher in adolescence. HCM is the most frequent cause of death in athletes in the Unites States of America. HCM is an autosomal-dominant genetic cardiomyopathy, and mutations in the genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are identified in 30–60% of cases. The presence of this genetic mutation carries more than 2-fold increased risk for all outcomes, including ventricular arrhythmias. Genetic and myocardial substrate, including fibrosis and intraventricular dispersion of conduction, ventricular hypertrophy and microvascular ischemia, increased myofilament calcium sensitivity and abnormal calcium handling, all play a role as arrhythmogenic determinants. Cardiac imaging studies provide important information for risk stratification. Transthoracic echocardiography can be helpful to evaluate left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV outflow-tract gradient and left atrial size. Additionally, cardiac magnetic resonance can evaluate the prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement, which when higher than 15% of LV mass is a prognostic maker of SCD. Age, family history of SCD, syncope and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia at Holter ECG have also been validated as independent prognostic markers of SCD. Arrhythmic risk stratification in HCM requires careful evaluation of several clinical aspects. Symptoms combined with electrocardiogram, cardiac imaging tools and genetic counselling are the modern cornerstone for proper risk stratification.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/442019
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