Simple Summary Super-high density olive orchards are spreading in Italy to reduce production costs and increase yields per hectare. The objective of this study was to assess the orchards' effect on the soil nematode community in five sites located in the main Italian olive cultivation areas compared to the adjacent traditional olive orchard system. Super-high density olive orchard management combined with conventional tillage and mineral fertilization decreased total organic carbon compared to traditional management. The soil nematode community was affected by the depletion of organic matter, especially for plant-parasitic nematodes, which increased. Moreover, this investigation evidenced that the Super-high density olive orchard management system could change the soil plant-parasitic nematode composition of olive orchards. In fact, the families Telotylenchidae, Paratylenchidae, Meloidogynidae, and Criconematidae were favored in the Super-high density olive orchard system, while Longidoridae, Heteroderidae, and Pratylenchidae were disadvantaged. However, conservative and sustainable soil management might maintain or improve the soil nematode community functionality and reduce plant-parasitic nematodes. The soil nematode community plays an important role in ecosystem services. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Super-high density (SHD) olive orchards on the nematode community in five sites with different soils, climates, and cultivars. At each site, the SHD management system was compared to the adjacent olive orchard traditional (TRAD) system, in which the same soil management and phytosanitary measures were applied. Soil management was assessed by total organic carbon content (TOC), while the soil nematode community was evaluated using the nematode taxa abundances and soil nematode indicators. TOC was significantly decreased in the SHD olive orchard system compared to TRAD in the sites characterized by conventional tillage and mineral fertilization. The two-way ANOSIM analysis on nematode abundance showed no difference between the two olive management methods, instead showing only a significant difference per site mainly due to variabilities in plant-parasitic nematode assemblage. However, a negative impact of SHD management was evident in environments stressed by summer droughts and conventional tillage: the ratio of obligate plant-parasites to bacterivores and fungivores (Pp/(B+F)) was significantly higher in SHD than in the TRAD olive orchard system, and the prey-to-predator theta mass ratio showed the lowest values in the sites under organic fertilization or green manure. The canonical correspondence analysis showed that the free-living nematodes were only slightly affected by SHD olive orchards; instead, the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes families such as Telotylenchidae, Paratylenchidae, Meloidogynidae, and Criconematidae was favored, in comparison to Longidoridae, Heteroderidae, and Pratylenchidae.

Impact of Super-High Density Olive Orchard Management System on Soil Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Central and South Italy

Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary Super-high density olive orchards are spreading in Italy to reduce production costs and increase yields per hectare. The objective of this study was to assess the orchards' effect on the soil nematode community in five sites located in the main Italian olive cultivation areas compared to the adjacent traditional olive orchard system. Super-high density olive orchard management combined with conventional tillage and mineral fertilization decreased total organic carbon compared to traditional management. The soil nematode community was affected by the depletion of organic matter, especially for plant-parasitic nematodes, which increased. Moreover, this investigation evidenced that the Super-high density olive orchard management system could change the soil plant-parasitic nematode composition of olive orchards. In fact, the families Telotylenchidae, Paratylenchidae, Meloidogynidae, and Criconematidae were favored in the Super-high density olive orchard system, while Longidoridae, Heteroderidae, and Pratylenchidae were disadvantaged. However, conservative and sustainable soil management might maintain or improve the soil nematode community functionality and reduce plant-parasitic nematodes. The soil nematode community plays an important role in ecosystem services. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Super-high density (SHD) olive orchards on the nematode community in five sites with different soils, climates, and cultivars. At each site, the SHD management system was compared to the adjacent olive orchard traditional (TRAD) system, in which the same soil management and phytosanitary measures were applied. Soil management was assessed by total organic carbon content (TOC), while the soil nematode community was evaluated using the nematode taxa abundances and soil nematode indicators. TOC was significantly decreased in the SHD olive orchard system compared to TRAD in the sites characterized by conventional tillage and mineral fertilization. The two-way ANOSIM analysis on nematode abundance showed no difference between the two olive management methods, instead showing only a significant difference per site mainly due to variabilities in plant-parasitic nematode assemblage. However, a negative impact of SHD management was evident in environments stressed by summer droughts and conventional tillage: the ratio of obligate plant-parasites to bacterivores and fungivores (Pp/(B+F)) was significantly higher in SHD than in the TRAD olive orchard system, and the prey-to-predator theta mass ratio showed the lowest values in the sites under organic fertilization or green manure. The canonical correspondence analysis showed that the free-living nematodes were only slightly affected by SHD olive orchards; instead, the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes families such as Telotylenchidae, Paratylenchidae, Meloidogynidae, and Criconematidae was favored, in comparison to Longidoridae, Heteroderidae, and Pratylenchidae.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/440957
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact