About 1 in 4 infants comes forward with prolonged crying, agitation, or infant colic (IC) during the first three months of life and is referred for medical evaluation. The pathogenesis remains poorly understood, as do its implications for future health. The aim of this narrative review was to critically examine and discuss the available literature on long-term consequences of excessive crying and/or colic. Most studies display an association between IC and the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) years later, probably related to the presence of common etiopathogenetic factors (environmental, dietary, intestinal dysmotility, visceral hypersensitivity). Although allergic disease in first-degree relatives may be a risk factor for IC, the latter does not appear to be a risk factor for subsequent atopic disease in the individual. Overall, there seems to be a relationship between IC and subsequent headaches, of the migraine type. Similarly, behavioral problems in children with a history of IC appear to be associated with higher parental stress scores. However, the current evidence is based on associations, and currently, a causal relationship between excessive crying and IC and long-term consequences remains not documented.

Infantile Colic and Long-Term Outcomes in Childhood: A Narrative Synthesis of the Evidence

Indrio, Flavia;Dargenio, Vanessa Nadia;
2023-01-01

Abstract

About 1 in 4 infants comes forward with prolonged crying, agitation, or infant colic (IC) during the first three months of life and is referred for medical evaluation. The pathogenesis remains poorly understood, as do its implications for future health. The aim of this narrative review was to critically examine and discuss the available literature on long-term consequences of excessive crying and/or colic. Most studies display an association between IC and the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) years later, probably related to the presence of common etiopathogenetic factors (environmental, dietary, intestinal dysmotility, visceral hypersensitivity). Although allergic disease in first-degree relatives may be a risk factor for IC, the latter does not appear to be a risk factor for subsequent atopic disease in the individual. Overall, there seems to be a relationship between IC and subsequent headaches, of the migraine type. Similarly, behavioral problems in children with a history of IC appear to be associated with higher parental stress scores. However, the current evidence is based on associations, and currently, a causal relationship between excessive crying and IC and long-term consequences remains not documented.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/436233
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