Previous results showed that intermittently administered irisin improves bone mass in normal mice and prevents the development of disuse-induced osteoporosis and muscular atrophy in hindlimb-suspended mice, a murine model able to mimic the absence of mechanical loading. A recent study showed that irisin increases survival of osteocytes acting through integrin αV/β5 receptors. To better understand the action of irisin on these cells, we investigated the downstream signaling cascades in osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4) treated with recombinant irisin (rec-irisin) in vitro and we analyzed survival of osteocytes and caspase activation in cortical bone of osteoporotic mice treated with rec-irisin in vivo. Our results revealed that rec-irisin activated the MAP kinases Erk1 and Erk2 and increased the expression of the transcription factor Atf4 (2.5-fold, p <.05) through an Erk-dependent pathway in osteocytes. Some key genes expressed by MLO-Y4 cells were modulated by long-term irisin treatment, either continuously administered or given with intermittent short pulses. Interestingly, Sost mRNA was severely downregulated only upon intermittent irisin administration (10-fold, p <.001). Furthermore, rec-irisin upregulated Tfam mRNA (fourfold, p <.05) and Bcl2/Bax ratio (twofold, p <.05) in MLO-Y4 cells. By detecting caspase-9 and caspase-3, we also found that rec-irisin inhibited apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide and dexamethasone, respectively. In cortical bone of unloading C57BL6 mice treated with vehicle (unload-veh), irisin prevented disuse-induced reduction of viable osteocytes (+30% versus unload-veh, p <.05) and increase of empty lacunae (+110% versus unload-veh, p <.05), as well as caspase-9 (threefold, p <.05) and caspase-3 (twofold, p <.05) activations. Our findings revealed underlying mechanisms of irisin action on osteocytes, which increases their functions and exerts anti-apoptotic effects, confirming that mechanosensor cells of bone are sensitive to the exercise-mimetic myokine irisin. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Irisin Prevents Disuse-Induced Osteocyte Apoptosis

Storlino G.;Sanesi L.;Grano M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Previous results showed that intermittently administered irisin improves bone mass in normal mice and prevents the development of disuse-induced osteoporosis and muscular atrophy in hindlimb-suspended mice, a murine model able to mimic the absence of mechanical loading. A recent study showed that irisin increases survival of osteocytes acting through integrin αV/β5 receptors. To better understand the action of irisin on these cells, we investigated the downstream signaling cascades in osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4) treated with recombinant irisin (rec-irisin) in vitro and we analyzed survival of osteocytes and caspase activation in cortical bone of osteoporotic mice treated with rec-irisin in vivo. Our results revealed that rec-irisin activated the MAP kinases Erk1 and Erk2 and increased the expression of the transcription factor Atf4 (2.5-fold, p <.05) through an Erk-dependent pathway in osteocytes. Some key genes expressed by MLO-Y4 cells were modulated by long-term irisin treatment, either continuously administered or given with intermittent short pulses. Interestingly, Sost mRNA was severely downregulated only upon intermittent irisin administration (10-fold, p <.001). Furthermore, rec-irisin upregulated Tfam mRNA (fourfold, p <.05) and Bcl2/Bax ratio (twofold, p <.05) in MLO-Y4 cells. By detecting caspase-9 and caspase-3, we also found that rec-irisin inhibited apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide and dexamethasone, respectively. In cortical bone of unloading C57BL6 mice treated with vehicle (unload-veh), irisin prevented disuse-induced reduction of viable osteocytes (+30% versus unload-veh, p <.05) and increase of empty lacunae (+110% versus unload-veh, p <.05), as well as caspase-9 (threefold, p <.05) and caspase-3 (twofold, p <.05) activations. Our findings revealed underlying mechanisms of irisin action on osteocytes, which increases their functions and exerts anti-apoptotic effects, confirming that mechanosensor cells of bone are sensitive to the exercise-mimetic myokine irisin. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/434638
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