Several nitrogen heterocyclic analogues have been applied to clinical practice, and about 75% of drugs approved by the FDA contain at least a heterocyclic moiety. Thus, nitrogen heterocycles are beneficial scaffolds that occupy a central position in the development of new drugs. The fact that certain nitrogen heterocyclic compounds significantly activate the NRF2/ARE signaling pathway and upregulate the expression of NRF2-dependent genes, especially HO-1 and NQO1, underscores the need to study the roles and pharmacological effects of N-based heterocyclic moieties in NRF2 activation. Furthermore, nitrogen heterocycles exhibit significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. NRF2-activating molecules have been of tremendous research interest in recent times due to their therapeutic roles in neuroinflammation and oxidative stress-mediated diseases. A comprehensive review of the NRF2-inducing activities of N-based heterocycles and their derivatives will broaden their therapeutic prospects in a wide range of diseases. Thus, the present review, as the first of its kind, provides an overview of the roles and effects of nitrogen heterocyclic moieties in the activation of the NRF2 signaling pathway underpinning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in several diseases, their pharmacological properties and structural–activity relationship are also discussed with the aim of making new discoveries that will stimulate innovative research in this area.

NRF2 Activation by Nitrogen Heterocycles: A Review

Tucci P.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Several nitrogen heterocyclic analogues have been applied to clinical practice, and about 75% of drugs approved by the FDA contain at least a heterocyclic moiety. Thus, nitrogen heterocycles are beneficial scaffolds that occupy a central position in the development of new drugs. The fact that certain nitrogen heterocyclic compounds significantly activate the NRF2/ARE signaling pathway and upregulate the expression of NRF2-dependent genes, especially HO-1 and NQO1, underscores the need to study the roles and pharmacological effects of N-based heterocyclic moieties in NRF2 activation. Furthermore, nitrogen heterocycles exhibit significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. NRF2-activating molecules have been of tremendous research interest in recent times due to their therapeutic roles in neuroinflammation and oxidative stress-mediated diseases. A comprehensive review of the NRF2-inducing activities of N-based heterocycles and their derivatives will broaden their therapeutic prospects in a wide range of diseases. Thus, the present review, as the first of its kind, provides an overview of the roles and effects of nitrogen heterocyclic moieties in the activation of the NRF2 signaling pathway underpinning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in several diseases, their pharmacological properties and structural–activity relationship are also discussed with the aim of making new discoveries that will stimulate innovative research in this area.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/431503
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