Objectives. Clinical experience and daily life indicate that the importance of smell, taste and flavour is variable among individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the importance attributed to smell, taste and flavour and socio-cultural differences among individuals.Methods. Cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was executed by two professional translators and one bilingual investigator and pre-tested on a pilot group of 25 subjects with normal smell and taste abilities. The final version of the questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 850 healthy subjects. The Google form consisted of three parts: "The importance of olfaction" developed by Croy et al. in 2010, "The importance of taste and flavour" developed by our team and a section to collect demographic data. The questions were classified into "association", "application", "consequence" and "aggravation". Statistical differences were assessed using t-test with p <= 0.05. Correlations were calculated using Spearman's test. Internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach's Alpha, while test-retest reliability was analysed by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2k).Results. The questionnaire received a non-response rate of 10.7%. Calculation of Cronbach's alpha showed good internal reliability (a = 0.87). Test-retest evaluation was satisfactory for all subscales, with an overall ICC2k = 0.84 (CI 0.79-0.89). Statistical analysis showed that smell, taste and flavour appeared to be more important for women when compared to men (p < 0.001). No statistical differences were seen between individuals with various educational background (p > 0.05), and the importance of smell (r = 0.16; p < 0.01), taste and flavour (r = 0.08; p < 0.05) did not decline with age.Conclusions. The development of this original test provides an overview into the importance of smell, taste and flavour among individuals. Although further research is needed, it can help in the evaluation and investigation of aspects that influence people to seek medical attention in the presence of sensory alterations.

Development of a questionnaire to investigate socio-cultural differences in the perception of smell, taste and flavour

Fortunato, Francesca;Gelardi, Matteo;Cassano, Michele
2021-01-01

Abstract

Objectives. Clinical experience and daily life indicate that the importance of smell, taste and flavour is variable among individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the importance attributed to smell, taste and flavour and socio-cultural differences among individuals.Methods. Cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was executed by two professional translators and one bilingual investigator and pre-tested on a pilot group of 25 subjects with normal smell and taste abilities. The final version of the questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 850 healthy subjects. The Google form consisted of three parts: "The importance of olfaction" developed by Croy et al. in 2010, "The importance of taste and flavour" developed by our team and a section to collect demographic data. The questions were classified into "association", "application", "consequence" and "aggravation". Statistical differences were assessed using t-test with p <= 0.05. Correlations were calculated using Spearman's test. Internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach's Alpha, while test-retest reliability was analysed by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2k).Results. The questionnaire received a non-response rate of 10.7%. Calculation of Cronbach's alpha showed good internal reliability (a = 0.87). Test-retest evaluation was satisfactory for all subscales, with an overall ICC2k = 0.84 (CI 0.79-0.89). Statistical analysis showed that smell, taste and flavour appeared to be more important for women when compared to men (p < 0.001). No statistical differences were seen between individuals with various educational background (p > 0.05), and the importance of smell (r = 0.16; p < 0.01), taste and flavour (r = 0.08; p < 0.05) did not decline with age.Conclusions. The development of this original test provides an overview into the importance of smell, taste and flavour among individuals. Although further research is needed, it can help in the evaluation and investigation of aspects that influence people to seek medical attention in the presence of sensory alterations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/427578
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