BACKGROUND Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) are the most recently approved drugs for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical trials of these compounds reported beneficial cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. A major cause of vascular dysfunction and CV disease in diabetes is hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that SGLT2-I reduce glucotoxicity and promote anti-inflammatory effects by lowering oxidative stress. AIM To investigate the effects of SGLT2-I on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, liver steatosis, and fibrosis in patients of T2D with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS We referred fifty-two consecutive outpatients treated with metformin monotherapy and exhibiting poor glycemic control to our centre. We introduced the outpatients to an SGLT2-I (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, or canagliflozin; n = 26) or a different hypoglycemic drug [other glucose-lowering drugs (OTHER), n = 26]. We evaluated circulating interleukins and serum hydroxynonenal (HNE)- or malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts, fatty liver index (FLI), NAFLD fibrosis score, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, AST-to-platelet-ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis-4 on the day before (T0) and following treatment for six months (T1). We also performed transient elastography at T0 and T1. RESULTS Add-on therapy resulted in improved glycemic control and reduced fasting blood glucose in both groups. Of note, following treatment for six months, a reduction of FLI and APRI, as well as of the FibroScan result, was reported in patients treated with SGLT2-I, but not in the OTHER group; furthermore, in the SGLT2-I group, we reported lower circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10. We did not observe any modification in circulating interleukins in the OTHER group. Finally, serum HNE- and MDA-protein adducts decreased significantly in SGLT2-I rather than OTHER patients and correlated with liver steatosis and fibrosis scores. CONCLUSION The present data indicate that treatment with SGLT2-I in patients with T2D and NAFLD is associated with improvement of liver steatosis and fibrosis markers and circulating pro-inflammatory and redox status, more than optimizing glycemic control.

Impact of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on liver steatosis/fibrosis/inflammation and redox balance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Bellanti, Francesco
;
Lo Buglio, Aurelio;Serviddio, Gaetano;Vendemiale, Gianluigi
2022-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) are the most recently approved drugs for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical trials of these compounds reported beneficial cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. A major cause of vascular dysfunction and CV disease in diabetes is hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that SGLT2-I reduce glucotoxicity and promote anti-inflammatory effects by lowering oxidative stress. AIM To investigate the effects of SGLT2-I on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, liver steatosis, and fibrosis in patients of T2D with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS We referred fifty-two consecutive outpatients treated with metformin monotherapy and exhibiting poor glycemic control to our centre. We introduced the outpatients to an SGLT2-I (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, or canagliflozin; n = 26) or a different hypoglycemic drug [other glucose-lowering drugs (OTHER), n = 26]. We evaluated circulating interleukins and serum hydroxynonenal (HNE)- or malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts, fatty liver index (FLI), NAFLD fibrosis score, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, AST-to-platelet-ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis-4 on the day before (T0) and following treatment for six months (T1). We also performed transient elastography at T0 and T1. RESULTS Add-on therapy resulted in improved glycemic control and reduced fasting blood glucose in both groups. Of note, following treatment for six months, a reduction of FLI and APRI, as well as of the FibroScan result, was reported in patients treated with SGLT2-I, but not in the OTHER group; furthermore, in the SGLT2-I group, we reported lower circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10. We did not observe any modification in circulating interleukins in the OTHER group. Finally, serum HNE- and MDA-protein adducts decreased significantly in SGLT2-I rather than OTHER patients and correlated with liver steatosis and fibrosis scores. CONCLUSION The present data indicate that treatment with SGLT2-I in patients with T2D and NAFLD is associated with improvement of liver steatosis and fibrosis markers and circulating pro-inflammatory and redox status, more than optimizing glycemic control.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/424947
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