Kidney biopsy is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). The immunofluorescence technique evidences the IgA deposits in the glomeruli; the routine histology shows degree of active and chronic renal lesions. The spectrum of renal lesions is highly variable, ranging from minor or no detectable lesions to diffuse proliferative or crescentic lesions. Over the past three decades, renal transcriptomic studies have been performed on fresh or frozen renal tissue, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney tissue specimens obtained from archival histological repositories. This paper aims to describe (1) the transcriptomic profiles of the kidney biopsy and (2) the potential urinary biomarkers that can be used to monitor the follow-up of IgAN patients. The use of quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), microarrays and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques on renal tissue and separated compartments of the nephron such as glomeruli and tubule-interstitium has clarified many aspects of the renal damage in IgAN. Recently, the introduction of the single-cell RNA-seq techniques has overcome the limitations of the previous methods, making that it is possible to study the whole renal tissue without the dissection of the nephron segments; it also allows better analysis of the cell-specific gene expression involved in cell differentiation. These gene products could represent effective candidates for urinary biomarkers for clinical decision making. Finally, some of these molecules may be the targets of old drugs, such as corticosteroids, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers, and new drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In the era of personalized medicine and precision therapy, high-throughput technologies may better characterize different renal patterns of IgAN and deliver targeted treatments to individual patients.

The molecular mechanisms of inflammation and scarring in the kidneys of immunoglobulin A nephropathy

Zaza G.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Kidney biopsy is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). The immunofluorescence technique evidences the IgA deposits in the glomeruli; the routine histology shows degree of active and chronic renal lesions. The spectrum of renal lesions is highly variable, ranging from minor or no detectable lesions to diffuse proliferative or crescentic lesions. Over the past three decades, renal transcriptomic studies have been performed on fresh or frozen renal tissue, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney tissue specimens obtained from archival histological repositories. This paper aims to describe (1) the transcriptomic profiles of the kidney biopsy and (2) the potential urinary biomarkers that can be used to monitor the follow-up of IgAN patients. The use of quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), microarrays and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques on renal tissue and separated compartments of the nephron such as glomeruli and tubule-interstitium has clarified many aspects of the renal damage in IgAN. Recently, the introduction of the single-cell RNA-seq techniques has overcome the limitations of the previous methods, making that it is possible to study the whole renal tissue without the dissection of the nephron segments; it also allows better analysis of the cell-specific gene expression involved in cell differentiation. These gene products could represent effective candidates for urinary biomarkers for clinical decision making. Finally, some of these molecules may be the targets of old drugs, such as corticosteroids, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers, and new drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In the era of personalized medicine and precision therapy, high-throughput technologies may better characterize different renal patterns of IgAN and deliver targeted treatments to individual patients.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/424447
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact