The tumor microenvironment (TME) includes immune (T, B, NK, dendritic), stromal, mesenchymal, endothelial, adipocytic cells, extracellular matrix, and cytokines/chemokines/soluble factors regulating various intracellular signaling pathways (ISP) in tumor cells. TME influences the survival/progression of prostate cancer (PC), enabling tumor cell immune-evasion also through the activation of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. We have performed a systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines, to investigate how the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is influenced by TME and ISPs. Tumor immune-escape mechanisms include suppression/exhaustion of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes, inhibition of tumor suppressive NK cells, increase in immune-suppressive immune cells (regulatory T, M2 macrophagic, myeloid-derived suppressor, dendritic, stromal, and adipocytic cells). IFN-gamma (the most investigated factor), TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-17, IL-15, IL-27, complement factor C5a, and other soluble molecules secreted by TME components (and sometimes increased in patients' serum), as well as and hypoxia, influenced the regulation of PD-L1. Experimental studies using human and mouse PC cell lines (derived from either androgen-sensitive or androgen-resistant tumors) revealed that the intracellular ERK/MEK, Akt-mTOR, NF-kB, WNT and JAK/STAT pathways were involved in PD-L1 upregulation in PC. Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling by using immunotherapy drugs can prevent tumor immune-escape, increasing the anti-tumor activity of immune cells.

What Do We Have to Know about PD-L1 Expression in Prostate Cancer? A Systematic Literature Review. Part 3: PD-L1, Intracellular Signaling Pathways and Tumor Microenvironment

Sanguedolce, Francesca;Giordano, Guido;Landriscina, Matteo;Carrieri, Giuseppe;Cormio, Luigi;
2021

Abstract

The tumor microenvironment (TME) includes immune (T, B, NK, dendritic), stromal, mesenchymal, endothelial, adipocytic cells, extracellular matrix, and cytokines/chemokines/soluble factors regulating various intracellular signaling pathways (ISP) in tumor cells. TME influences the survival/progression of prostate cancer (PC), enabling tumor cell immune-evasion also through the activation of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. We have performed a systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines, to investigate how the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is influenced by TME and ISPs. Tumor immune-escape mechanisms include suppression/exhaustion of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes, inhibition of tumor suppressive NK cells, increase in immune-suppressive immune cells (regulatory T, M2 macrophagic, myeloid-derived suppressor, dendritic, stromal, and adipocytic cells). IFN-gamma (the most investigated factor), TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-17, IL-15, IL-27, complement factor C5a, and other soluble molecules secreted by TME components (and sometimes increased in patients' serum), as well as and hypoxia, influenced the regulation of PD-L1. Experimental studies using human and mouse PC cell lines (derived from either androgen-sensitive or androgen-resistant tumors) revealed that the intracellular ERK/MEK, Akt-mTOR, NF-kB, WNT and JAK/STAT pathways were involved in PD-L1 upregulation in PC. Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling by using immunotherapy drugs can prevent tumor immune-escape, increasing the anti-tumor activity of immune cells.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/423554
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