This review aims to critically present the available clinical evidence supporting the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia with xanthine oxidase inhibitors. For this reason, the studies published on uric acid (UA)-lowering drugs in the English language from 2000 to August 2019 have been carefully reviewed. The terms "serum uric acid,""xanthine oxidase,""allopurinol,""febuxostat,"and "topiroxostat"were incorporated into an electronic search strategy, alone and in combinations, in both MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Even if new urate-lowering drugs seem of particular efficacy for acute treatment of refractory hyperuricemia, their use is supported by relatively small clinical evidence. On the contrary, large long-term clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs, namely, allopurinol and febuxostat) are effective, safe, and relatively well-tolerated in most of the patients. They have mainly been tested in the elderly, in patients affected by chronic diseases such as heart failure and cancer, and in patients taking a large number of drugs, confirming their safety profile. Recent data also show that they could exert some positive effects on vascular health, renal function, and glucose metabolism. Their cost is also low. In conclusion, XOIs remain the first choice of UA-lowering drug for chronic treatment.

Clinical Effects of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors in Hyperuricemic Patients

Cincione R. I.;
2021

Abstract

This review aims to critically present the available clinical evidence supporting the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia with xanthine oxidase inhibitors. For this reason, the studies published on uric acid (UA)-lowering drugs in the English language from 2000 to August 2019 have been carefully reviewed. The terms "serum uric acid,""xanthine oxidase,""allopurinol,""febuxostat,"and "topiroxostat"were incorporated into an electronic search strategy, alone and in combinations, in both MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Even if new urate-lowering drugs seem of particular efficacy for acute treatment of refractory hyperuricemia, their use is supported by relatively small clinical evidence. On the contrary, large long-term clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs, namely, allopurinol and febuxostat) are effective, safe, and relatively well-tolerated in most of the patients. They have mainly been tested in the elderly, in patients affected by chronic diseases such as heart failure and cancer, and in patients taking a large number of drugs, confirming their safety profile. Recent data also show that they could exert some positive effects on vascular health, renal function, and glucose metabolism. Their cost is also low. In conclusion, XOIs remain the first choice of UA-lowering drug for chronic treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/418034
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