Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading types of cancer worldwide, particularly in East Asian populations. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been established as a major risk factor for GC. Although more than 50% of the world population is infected with this bacterium, less than 2% develop GC. Therefore, further risk factors (such as host genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle, as well as environmental and epigenetic factors) may also play a role in its occurrence. The correlation between HP infection and GC represents a typical model of a multi-step process, characterized by some pre-neoplastic lesions with a high risk of progression (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). In addition, HP also plays an oncogenic role in the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, that accounts for approximately 3% of all gastric tumors. Hyperplastic polyps often arise in patients with atrophic gastric mucosa and HP-associated gastritis (25% of cases); however, their malignant trasformation is rare (<3% of cases). A number of trials have demonstrated the possibility of cancer prevention through HP screening and eradication, particularly in high-risk populations, whereas it may not be cost-effective in areas of low risk. In this review, we discuss i) the complex pathogenetic mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis in which HP is involved; ii) the main approaches to the diagnosis, prevention, surveillance and treatment of pre-malignant lesions associated with HP infection; iii) the most effective way to detect GC in its earlier stages; and iv) the most important contribution to reducing the burden of GC.

H. pylori infection and gastric cancer: State of the art (Review)

Conteduca V.
;
2013

Abstract

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading types of cancer worldwide, particularly in East Asian populations. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been established as a major risk factor for GC. Although more than 50% of the world population is infected with this bacterium, less than 2% develop GC. Therefore, further risk factors (such as host genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle, as well as environmental and epigenetic factors) may also play a role in its occurrence. The correlation between HP infection and GC represents a typical model of a multi-step process, characterized by some pre-neoplastic lesions with a high risk of progression (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). In addition, HP also plays an oncogenic role in the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, that accounts for approximately 3% of all gastric tumors. Hyperplastic polyps often arise in patients with atrophic gastric mucosa and HP-associated gastritis (25% of cases); however, their malignant trasformation is rare (<3% of cases). A number of trials have demonstrated the possibility of cancer prevention through HP screening and eradication, particularly in high-risk populations, whereas it may not be cost-effective in areas of low risk. In this review, we discuss i) the complex pathogenetic mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis in which HP is involved; ii) the main approaches to the diagnosis, prevention, surveillance and treatment of pre-malignant lesions associated with HP infection; iii) the most effective way to detect GC in its earlier stages; and iv) the most important contribution to reducing the burden of GC.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/408026
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 150
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 125
social impact