Introduction. Upside-down stomach (UDS) is the rarest type of hiatal hernia (<5%). It is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. It is a very rare condition and it is associated with a risk of incarceration as well as volvulus development. All of these complications represent true emergencies as life-threatening conditions. Material & methods. Case 1: A 62-year-old woman with an incarcerated and ischemic paraesophageal hiatal hernia with a stomach perforation. A total gastrectomy was performed with a Roux en-Y esophago-jejunostomy. The patient was discharged after 15 days without any complication. Case 2: A 84-year-old woman with the evidence at the computer tomography scan all of her stomach and parts of her jejunum and pancreas were drawn into the hernia sac herniated in her thorax. An exploratory laparotomy was performed which showed edematous intraperitoneal portion of the pyloric antrum, a total gastrectomy was performed and Roux en-Y esophago-jejunostomy was performed. The patient was placed in the intensive care unit, where she was instable and she developed sepsis. She died on 7th postoperative day. Case 3: A 76-year-old man presented in our department as emergency with the diagnosis of an incarcerated and ischemic paraesophageal hiatal hernia. An exploratory laparotomy was performed which showed an incarcerated and strangulated hiatal hernia. A section of the cardias and the body of the stomach was performed. The patient was placed in the intensive care unit, where he was instable and he developed sepsis which caused his death. Discussion. Surgery for incarcerated paraesophageal hernia or upside-down stomach has to be performed emergently as incarceration can become irreversible and severe bleeding can occur due to distension and vascular dilation. Moreover, ischemia and gastric perforation are on the verge. However, there are no clear evidence or existing guidelines on the management of acute paraesophageal hernia or upside-down stomach. In our literature review we analyzed clinical case reports and case series studies of strangulated hiatal hernia published between 2013 and 2019 published in PubMed. Conclusion. Management of strangulated hiatal hernia remains a challenge in general surgery. Open approach is suggested for unstable patients and an emergent laparoscopic reduction and repair is reasonable in stable patients.

Strangulated hiatal hernia remains a challenge in surgical emergency: Literature review and our experience

Pavone G.;Tartaglia N.
;
Vovola F.;Maddalena F.;Fersini A.;Pacilli M.;Ambrosi A.
2020

Abstract

Introduction. Upside-down stomach (UDS) is the rarest type of hiatal hernia (<5%). It is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. It is a very rare condition and it is associated with a risk of incarceration as well as volvulus development. All of these complications represent true emergencies as life-threatening conditions. Material & methods. Case 1: A 62-year-old woman with an incarcerated and ischemic paraesophageal hiatal hernia with a stomach perforation. A total gastrectomy was performed with a Roux en-Y esophago-jejunostomy. The patient was discharged after 15 days without any complication. Case 2: A 84-year-old woman with the evidence at the computer tomography scan all of her stomach and parts of her jejunum and pancreas were drawn into the hernia sac herniated in her thorax. An exploratory laparotomy was performed which showed edematous intraperitoneal portion of the pyloric antrum, a total gastrectomy was performed and Roux en-Y esophago-jejunostomy was performed. The patient was placed in the intensive care unit, where she was instable and she developed sepsis. She died on 7th postoperative day. Case 3: A 76-year-old man presented in our department as emergency with the diagnosis of an incarcerated and ischemic paraesophageal hiatal hernia. An exploratory laparotomy was performed which showed an incarcerated and strangulated hiatal hernia. A section of the cardias and the body of the stomach was performed. The patient was placed in the intensive care unit, where he was instable and he developed sepsis which caused his death. Discussion. Surgery for incarcerated paraesophageal hernia or upside-down stomach has to be performed emergently as incarceration can become irreversible and severe bleeding can occur due to distension and vascular dilation. Moreover, ischemia and gastric perforation are on the verge. However, there are no clear evidence or existing guidelines on the management of acute paraesophageal hernia or upside-down stomach. In our literature review we analyzed clinical case reports and case series studies of strangulated hiatal hernia published between 2013 and 2019 published in PubMed. Conclusion. Management of strangulated hiatal hernia remains a challenge in general surgery. Open approach is suggested for unstable patients and an emergent laparoscopic reduction and repair is reasonable in stable patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/395392
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