The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response activated by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its uncontrolled activation is mechanistically responsible for several human pathologies, including metabolic, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Indeed, ER stress and the downstreamUPR activation lead to changes in the levels and activities of key regulators of cell survival and autophagy and this is physiologically finalized to restore metabolic homeostasis with the integration of pro-death or/and pro-survival signals. By contrast, the chronic activation of UPR in cancer cells is widely considered a mechanismof tumor progression. In this review,we focus on the relationship between ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in human breast cancer and the interplay between the activation of UPR and resistance to anticancer therapies with the aimto disclose novel therapeutic scenarios. The hypothesis that autophagy and UPRmay provide novelmolecular targets in humanmalignancies is discussed.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in breast cancer: The balance between apoptosis and autophagy and its role in drug resistance

Lepore S.;Landriscina M.
2019-01-01

Abstract

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response activated by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its uncontrolled activation is mechanistically responsible for several human pathologies, including metabolic, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Indeed, ER stress and the downstreamUPR activation lead to changes in the levels and activities of key regulators of cell survival and autophagy and this is physiologically finalized to restore metabolic homeostasis with the integration of pro-death or/and pro-survival signals. By contrast, the chronic activation of UPR in cancer cells is widely considered a mechanismof tumor progression. In this review,we focus on the relationship between ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in human breast cancer and the interplay between the activation of UPR and resistance to anticancer therapies with the aimto disclose novel therapeutic scenarios. The hypothesis that autophagy and UPRmay provide novelmolecular targets in humanmalignancies is discussed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/393090
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