The present work was carried out to evaluate the eects of irrigation with two dierent municipal wastewaters (secondary-treated wastewater (SW) and tertiary-treated wastewater (TW)) compared to freshwater (FW) on main qualitative parameters of three dierent classes of globe artichoke (main, secondary, and processing heads). The experimental trial was conducted in Southern Italy (Apulia region) for two cropping cycles (GS1 and GS2) using ‘Violetto di Provenza’ as cultivar. The artichoke heads were analyzed for proximate composition (dry matter, total sugar, total fat, ash, and total protein), percentage of edible part, mineral profile (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, nickel, zinc, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulphate) and polyphenolic acids content (caeoylquinic acids and flavones). Both SW and TW treatments caused an increase of the percentage of the edible part, head protein contents, and mineral elements of the main and processing heads. Moreover, SW statistically increased the caeoylquinic acid derivatives and the trans-ferulic acid content, while both SW and TW the flavones content. Finally, according to the multivariate analysis adopted, in our experimental conditions, the mineral component of the heads, such as chloride, potassium, copper, and zinc content, had a greater weight in the separation of FW, SW, and TW. On the other hand, the polyphenolic 5-O-caeoylquinic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and 1,5-di-O-caeoylquinic acid had a greater weight in the separation of the head class groups (main, secondary, and processing). Moreover, the trans-ferulic acid content of the heads was related both to the irrigation water type and to the dierent head classes.
|Titolo:||Effects of the Irrigation with Treated Wastewaters on the Proximate Composition, Mineral, and Polyphenolic Profile of the Globe Artichoke Heads [Cynara cardunculus (L.)]|
GIULIANI, MARCELLA MICHELA (Corresponding)
GATTA, GIUSEPPE (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|