Erythema Multiforme (EM) is an acute immune-mediated condition characterized by the appearance of typical target-like lesions on the skin. They most commonly appear in a symmetrical distribution on the extensor surfaces of the acral extremities and subsequently spread in a centripetal way. EM ‘major’ involves oral, genital and ocular mucosae with erosions or bullae. Although cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic, EM can be caused by drugs, autoimmune disease, malignancy, irradiation, sarcoidosis and in 90 percent of cases by infections (viral, bacterial, fungal). Herpes Simplex virus is the most frequent etiologic agent. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae infection is another important cause of EM, particularly in children. Laboratory findings are not specific and clinical finding are necessary for diagnosis. A skin biopsy should be performed when the diagnosis is unclear. CASE REPORT: 14 year old male came to our attention for the appearance of cutaneous lesions, accompanied by high fever. The skin appeared almost entirely affected by roundish, sharp, erythematous lesions, some of these with evident ‘coccard’ sign, other ecchymotic with hemorrhagic nuance, confluent to the trunk in large patches. No recent history of infections or drugs. Laboratory findings showed a neutrophilia (N 8810/mcl) and eosinophilia (E 980/mcl) and high inflammatory indices (PCR 4.75 mg/dl, ferritin 517 kg/ml). Peripheral smear, autoimmunity, virological and bacterial screening and instrumental examinations were negative. On the third day of admission, he performed a nasal swab (Multiplex) due to the appearance of rhinorrhea and cough. It was positive for Human Metapenumovirus (HM). On the seventh day, there was a new poussé of erythematous, itchy, coccard element on the whole body surface. He was treated with antihistaminic, steroid and antibiotic therapy with gradual rash regression, desquamation of skin lesions and defervescence. In literature it is known that HM is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children. However, no further cases are reported regarding the possible relationship between skin lesions and HM. In our case the only laboratory finding associate to the EM was a positive RT-PCR for HM. This observation could lead to further scientific evaluations.

HUMAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR A SEVERE ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME: AN UNUSUAL ASSOCIATION

CANESTRALE, ROSA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
GIORGIO, ROSSELLA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
SIENA, SOFIA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Irene Rutigliano
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Agostino Petraccaro
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Enrica Manca
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
DIRODI, ANGELICA ALESSIA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Massimo Pettoello Mantovani.
Conceptualization
2019

Abstract

Erythema Multiforme (EM) is an acute immune-mediated condition characterized by the appearance of typical target-like lesions on the skin. They most commonly appear in a symmetrical distribution on the extensor surfaces of the acral extremities and subsequently spread in a centripetal way. EM ‘major’ involves oral, genital and ocular mucosae with erosions or bullae. Although cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic, EM can be caused by drugs, autoimmune disease, malignancy, irradiation, sarcoidosis and in 90 percent of cases by infections (viral, bacterial, fungal). Herpes Simplex virus is the most frequent etiologic agent. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae infection is another important cause of EM, particularly in children. Laboratory findings are not specific and clinical finding are necessary for diagnosis. A skin biopsy should be performed when the diagnosis is unclear. CASE REPORT: 14 year old male came to our attention for the appearance of cutaneous lesions, accompanied by high fever. The skin appeared almost entirely affected by roundish, sharp, erythematous lesions, some of these with evident ‘coccard’ sign, other ecchymotic with hemorrhagic nuance, confluent to the trunk in large patches. No recent history of infections or drugs. Laboratory findings showed a neutrophilia (N 8810/mcl) and eosinophilia (E 980/mcl) and high inflammatory indices (PCR 4.75 mg/dl, ferritin 517 kg/ml). Peripheral smear, autoimmunity, virological and bacterial screening and instrumental examinations were negative. On the third day of admission, he performed a nasal swab (Multiplex) due to the appearance of rhinorrhea and cough. It was positive for Human Metapenumovirus (HM). On the seventh day, there was a new poussé of erythematous, itchy, coccard element on the whole body surface. He was treated with antihistaminic, steroid and antibiotic therapy with gradual rash regression, desquamation of skin lesions and defervescence. In literature it is known that HM is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children. However, no further cases are reported regarding the possible relationship between skin lesions and HM. In our case the only laboratory finding associate to the EM was a positive RT-PCR for HM. This observation could lead to further scientific evaluations.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/379295
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact