Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a minor cereal, which has attracting growing interest in the last years because of its high adaptability to harsh environmental conditions. It is consumed as a whole grain so it contains high amount of fibre and bioactive compounds as well as it presents an excellent nutrient profile due to a well-balanced aminoacid composition and high content of various minerals and vitamins. For all these reasons and due to the increasing global interest in healthy foods, teff has the potential to be used in products with improved functional properties. The main aim of this research was to develop the knowledge for affirming the use of such minor cereal, Eragrostis Tef. So, it has been studied starting from its cultivation up to the product development. The specific goals of this research were: · The study of the adaptability of teff and other two minor cereals, sorghum and millet, to a Mediterranean area under deficit irrigation. Yield parameters, nutritional properties and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. · The development of a healthy ready-to-eat cereal breakfast with the extrusion-cooking technology by using teff flour and by varying some extrusion variables, such as temperature of the last barrel zone and feed moisture of the blends. Specifically physical and structural properties, as well as pasting properties and some functional essential attributes (e.g. antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, fibre content) of extruded samples were investigated. · The adoption of an emerging technology, 3D food printing, to obtain innovative and personalized snack, nutritionally designed to meet the specific micronutrient requirements of women. Also in this study teff flour was used in the food formulas. The main results of this research study have permitted some considerations: · Teff appears to be the best-adapted crop, among those studied, to the sub-arid environment of South of Italy due to its best yield stability and nutritional quality also showing a great potential to contribute to food and nutrition security in Mediterranean environments. · The incorporation of teff flour significantly changed the physical and sensory characteristics of extruded cereals. In particular lightness and crispiness were affected by inclusion of teff flour, but process management of extruded cereal breakfast, according to different process conditions, such as feed moisture and temperature of the last barrel, allows creating desirable quality of final products. Moreover, varying the process parameters and increasing teff flour addition, microstructural properties of sample change considerably and these characteristics could affect structural properties of extruded products. · Teff flour served as a good source of polyphenols, which are the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity, in extruded ready-to-eat cereal breakfast. Under optimal conditions, the extrusion-cooking technology is a suitable method for the preparation of gluten-free products with high level of dietary fibre. · Teff flour has been suitable for the 3D printing technology to obtain personalized foods. 3D printed snack met the micronutrient requirements of women, particularly iron, folate and calcium. These minerals/vitamins reached the RDA percentage requested to obtain the nutritional claim for such micronutrient. Moreover 3D printed snack showed a high fibre content so they also contribute to the women’ health condition. Finally such snack were well appreciated by the panelists, assuming that consumers could accept this innovative and personalized products.
|Titolo:||Development and valorisation of a nutritionally rich minor cereal (Eragrostis tef) by conventional and innovative techniques|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 Tesi di dottorato|