Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are bioactive microbiota metabolites originated exclusively from protein fermentation of the bacterial community resident within the gut microbiota, whose composition and function is profoundly different in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. PBUTs accumulate in the later stages of CKD because they cannot be efficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis due to their high binding affinity for albumin, worsening their toxic effects, especially at the cardiovascular level. The accumulation of uremic toxins, along with oxidative stress products and pro-inflammatory cytokines, characterizes the uremic status of CKD patients which is increasingly associated to a state of immune dysfunction including both immune activation and immunodepression. Furthermore, the links between immune activation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and between immunodepression and infection diseases, which are the two major complications of CKD, are becoming more and more evident. This review summarizes and discusses the current state of knowledge on the role of the main PBUTs, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, as regulators of immune response in CKD, in order to understand whether a microbiota modulation may be useful in the management of its main complications, CVD, and infections. Summarizing the direct effects of PBUT on immune system we may conclude that PCS seemed to be associated to an immune deficiency status of CKD mainly related to the adaptative immune response, while IS seemed to reflect the activation of both innate and adaptative immune systems likely responsible of the CKD-associated inflammation. However, the exact role of IS and PCS on immunity modulation in physiological and pathological state still needs in-depth investigation, particularly in vivo studies.

Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins and Immunity

Rocchetti M. T.
;
Ranieri E.;
2021

Abstract

Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are bioactive microbiota metabolites originated exclusively from protein fermentation of the bacterial community resident within the gut microbiota, whose composition and function is profoundly different in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. PBUTs accumulate in the later stages of CKD because they cannot be efficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis due to their high binding affinity for albumin, worsening their toxic effects, especially at the cardiovascular level. The accumulation of uremic toxins, along with oxidative stress products and pro-inflammatory cytokines, characterizes the uremic status of CKD patients which is increasingly associated to a state of immune dysfunction including both immune activation and immunodepression. Furthermore, the links between immune activation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and between immunodepression and infection diseases, which are the two major complications of CKD, are becoming more and more evident. This review summarizes and discusses the current state of knowledge on the role of the main PBUTs, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, as regulators of immune response in CKD, in order to understand whether a microbiota modulation may be useful in the management of its main complications, CVD, and infections. Summarizing the direct effects of PBUT on immune system we may conclude that PCS seemed to be associated to an immune deficiency status of CKD mainly related to the adaptative immune response, while IS seemed to reflect the activation of both innate and adaptative immune systems likely responsible of the CKD-associated inflammation. However, the exact role of IS and PCS on immunity modulation in physiological and pathological state still needs in-depth investigation, particularly in vivo studies.
978-1-0716-1506-5
978-1-0716-1507-2
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11369/415090
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